Electric Vehicle Battery Technology is the technology used in electric vehicles that we can see today. Battery electric vehicles or electric vehicles are one of the most disruptive innovations in the automobile industry. These vehicles have been designed while keeping in mind the prevalent hazards of environmental degradation. These vehicles are completely electric and function with rechargeable batteries that are charged by an external source of electricity instead of obtaining power from the conventional gasoline engine, eliminating the menace of tailpipe pollution and emission of toxic gases. For the standardization of electric vehicles, the installation of EV chargers in different parts of the globe is also in process.
Main types of batteries used in electric vehicles:
· Lithium-ion batteries: Lithium-ion batteries are known for having a high power-to-weight ratio, high energy efficiency, and a tendency to perform well under high temperatures. The high power-to-weight ratio of the batteries enables the electric cars to hold a good amount of energy and travel to long distances after a single session of charge.
· Nickel-metal hydride batteries: Nickel-metal hydride batteries have a robust functioning with high energy density and a prolonged life cycle. The main drawback of using nickel-metal hydride batteries in the production of AEVs is that they depend on fuel to recharge rather than an external plug-in source, which is why manufacturers are reluctant to use them in their electric vehicles. Moreover, these batteries are very costly, have a high-discharge rate, and need high prerequisites to cooling them down.
· Lead-acid batteries: Lead-acid batteries are safe and reliable to use and provide a high power output. Lead-acid batteries require a high assessment of electrolyte level and tend to have a substandard specific rate of 34 Wh/kg. However, these batteries contain sulfuric acid and emit dangerous gases and toxicants in the environment. Therefore, lead-acid batteries are now only used as a marginal electric storage device in commercial vehicles.
Ultra-capacitors: Ultra-capacitors are used as secondary electric storage systems and as ancillary devices as they have the tendency to recharge instantly and self-discharge efficiently. Ultra-capacitors store the energy from braking and supply it to the vehicle for extra power during acceleration and regenerative braking. Other advantages of ultra-capacitors include an extensive life expectancy, a considerable operating range, and they are free of any toxic or dangerous chemicals.
How does an electric battery function?
All-electric vehicles rely on grid electricity stored in their rechargeable batteries, while plug-in hybrid electric vehicles use electric power to the point it is fully consumed and then shift over to the internal combustion engine as a secondary power source.
The batteries of AEVs can be recharged from a wall socket or resolute charging units, which are being installed in various countries for the conveyance of AEV owners. For the storage of electricity, AEVs makes use of a traction battery pack. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in AEVs as they do not require high maintenance and are less liable to self-discharge.
The cells in a lithium-ion battery are arranged in the form of individual battery units and are connected to one another and are handled by an electronic circuit. The battery works by circulating the electrons in the electrolyte by establishing a difference between the positive and negative electrodes. While providing power to a device, the electrons present at the negative electrode are discharged to the positive electrode through an external circuit. Similarly, at the time of charging, the energy provided by the charges enables the electron to go back to the negative electrode from the positive electrode.
When an AEV is supplied with electricity, it functions in the following manner:
- The electric power is transfers from the DC battery to AC battery, to make it utilizable for the electric motor
- The controller receives an indication from the accelerator pedal to adjust the speed of the vehicle by altering the frequency of the AC power
- The wheels are attached and revolved by the motor through a cog
- After pressing the brakes as the energy of the car is depleted, the motor starts to generate an altering current, which is dispatched back to the battery.